• Trigeminal Nerve

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    • The semilunar ganglion of the trigeminal nerve lies deep within the skull. The three branches of the nerve leave through large separate openings in the base of the skull.
    • The trigeminal nerve is the 5th cranial nerve. Its three portions are the ophthalmic nerve controlling sensation to the upper face, the maxillary nerve controlling sensation to the mid-face, and the mandibular nerve supplying sensation to the lower face and the skin around and above the ear. Each of the branches supplies both soft tissue and bone.
    • All large ganglia in the body can harbor certain viruses. Oral herpes infections “hibernate” within the semilunar ganglion, traveling down the nerve roots to the mouth when the virus is activated by stress.
  • Upper Abdominal Anatomy

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    • The primary function of the upper abdominal organs is the breakdown of food for distribution by the small bowel. Chewed and macerated food travels through the esophagus to the stomach, where strong acids and muscular contractions break it down further.
    • Proteolytic enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the liver and gallbladder drain into the duodenum to further the digestion and breakdown of food.
    • The spleen functions as part of the hematopoietic system, controlling the distribution and eventual destruction of red blood cells. It also acts as a part of the immune system.
    • Blood is supplied to most of these structures by branches of the celiac trunk, the first major aortic branch in the abdomen.
  • Urinary System

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    • The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. This system is responsible for removing wastes and extra fluid from the body in the form of urine. It also keeps the levels of electrolytes in the body stable.
    • The kidneys filter the blood through specialized capillaries in order to remove waste materials and produce urine.
    • The ureters drain urine from the kidneys and transport it to the bladder, where it is stored until it is released outside the body through the urethra during urination.
  • Uterine Anatomy

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    • The uterus is small and contracted in its non-pregnant state, but grows to fill nearly the entire abdomen during pregnancy. Delivery is effected by repeated strong contractions pushing the fetus through the cervix and out the birth canal (vagina).
    • The fallopian tubes carry the ova to the uterine cavity, where fertilized eggs implant and develop.
    • The blood supply to the uterus is redundant and increases greatly during pregnancy.
  • Vacuum Delivery

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    • Vacuum delivery may be performed in cases where there is a prolonged second stage of labor or suspicion of immediate or potential fetal compromise. This procedure assists delivery by helping to move the baby through the birth canal.
    • The vacuum cap is a simple device that is placed on the vertex of the head with a small hand-held vacuum pump; some physicians leave the vacuum on between contractions and some release the vacuum. The caps are set to pop off if the vacuum pressure is too high.
    • This procedure works with the uterine contractions, gently assisting and guiding the fetus out during contractions, and resting between them. It is not used between contractions.
  • Vision

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    • The visual system is composed of specialized nerve fibers originating in the retina. They join to form the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) just behind the globe. The medial portions of the optic nerve cross over each other at the optic chiasm in front of the pituitary gland. As the nerve fibers travel posteriorly within the brain, they form the optic tracts terminating in the occipital lobe of the brain. By identifying visual field defect patterns, it is possible to determine an anatomical location of the source of visual loss.
    • The visual fields of normally-aligned eyes overlap. Each eye sees objects from a slightly different angle, and the brain fuses these views. This binocular vision allows us to perceive depth and spatial relationships.
  • Visual Field Defects

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    • A variety of retinal or more central pathologies can cause visual field deficits that are limited to particular regions of visual space.
    • By identifying visual field defect patterns, it is possible to determine the anatomical location of the source of visual loss.
    • Damage to the retina or one of the optic nerves before it reaches the optic chiasm results in a loss of vision that is limited to the eye of origin, while damage in the region of the optic chiasm or farther back in the brain will involve the visual fields of both eyes.
    • This 2D dissolve animation shows how this maneuver can release shoulder dystocia impaction and allow for delivery of the fetal shoulder.
    • Each animation has pause and play buttons to allow for more interactivity during viewing.

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