Nerve Anatomy


(Depending on size)

  • Nerves are composed of multiple fibers which in turn are composed of many, many axons. Each successive grouping of fibers is surrounded by connective tissue.
  • Axons are the long branches of nerves cells which transmit electrochemical impulses from one nerve to another or to and from target organs.
  • The axons are surrounded by myelin, a kind of insulating material formed by oligodendrocytes. In diseases in which myelin is destroyed, electrochemical conduction is impossible, and even if the nerve fibers do not die, they are ineffective.
  • Blood vessels travel through the mesoneurium and then divide into capillaries within the nerve to deliver oxygen and nutrients.
  • Nerves are vulnerable to trauma, reduced oxygen levels, and diabetes.