The surface of the brain has multiple folds, or gyri, separated by sulci. While many of these are specific to a particular individual, some are constant and serve as landmarks for functional control.
The cerebrum is the large, rounded portion of the brain and is the site of higher functions. The cerebellum and brainstem control more basic functions like heart rate, balance, and respiration.
The cranial nerves mostly originate in the brainstem and exit the skull via foramina in the base of the skull (see M1). The optic nerves originate in the occipital lobes, travel along pathways inside the brain matter, and exit anteriorly.
The corpus callosum is a group of myelin-covered neuronal fibers (white matter) which connect the right side of the brain with the left.